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5 survival tips all urban prepper should know to stay alive

Disasters can happen at any time, especially when you least expect it. There are different forms of disasters that you may encounter in your life. The natural disasters include earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, floods or plagues. On the other hand, man-made disasters refer to fire or other unfortunate events that men are responsible for. As such, there is a great need to be prepared in cases where you may find yourself in a complete disaster.

At this point, it must be noted that a disaster has the capacity to turn your life upside down. As a matter of fact, it can lead to permanent disability or even death. In this article, we will provide a list of urban survival tips that you can use in order to stay safe and alive during a disaster.

1. Keep Calm

The first thing that you need to remember is to stay calm during a disaster. Stop thinking of negative thoughts that can only make you feel down. Instead, keep calm and start thinking of better ways on how you can survive. In doing this, you will be able to make rational decisions. As a result, you have a higher chance of surviving the disaster.

On the other hand, if you start to rattle yourself, you will not be able to think properly. This can be dangerous on your part especially in times like flood or earthquake where acting fast and quick is a necessity.

2. Getting Together

It is a good thing if the disaster happens during a time where you are together with your family and loved ones. This way, you can be able to check out on each other and consolidate all your efforts in surviving the calamity or disaster. Your priority must be to look out for each other and try to listen to the suggestions of other members of the family.

House on fire

However, a problem arises if the disaster happens during a daytime where you are at work or your kids are at school. In these times, there could be a difficulty in communicating or getting in touch with each other. This is the reason why it is highly recommended that you think of alternatives. The key here is to be prepared all the time. Make sure that you have agreed on particular matters that each one should follow during a disaster. For example, you can designate an area as your meeting place in case there would be no means of communication available. At the same time, remind your kids to never leave the school premises if there is someone in charged to take care of them during the disaster. 

3. Observation Is the Key to Survive

When it comes to dealing with a disaster, always remember the significance of being observant to what other people are doing. Sometimes, it is your primary key to survival. In so doing, you would be able to get an idea on what you can do to increase the chance of surviving the disaster. Nonetheless, you need to remember that observing the acts of other people and imitating those acts only work if you have no idea on what to do during the disaster. If you have already prepared yourself on how to act and react in difficult times, then stick to what you know. Take note that other people may also be doing the wrong thing. Instead of helping yourself, you may end up being exposed to more danger. This is why nothing beats being prepared all the time.

4. Urban Survival Kit Is Needed

In times of disaster, the best thing to do is to evacuate. This is necessary during earthquakes, tsunamis or floods. Staying indoors can be dangerous on your part. As such, it is important to prepare an urban survival kit that you can grab at any time. This means that you need not wait for the disaster to come before you pack the survival kit. What is important is that you have gathered all the essentials for survival and place them in one bag that you can easily grab when there is a need to evacuate.

survival kit

An urban survival kit must not be too heavy as it can cause major inconvenience during evacuation. As already mentioned above, only bring the essentials. One of the things that you must never forget is first aid as it may come in handy in cases you get wounded or meet an accident along the way. Other must-have items include flashlight, match, multi-tool, utensils and knife.

5. Food and Water

During a disaster, the number one thing that runs out of supply easily is food and water. If you know that there is an impending disaster that will strike your area, such as a typhoon or tsunami, the best thing to do is to pack enough food and water supply for your family. The said supply must be able to last for at least three days to one week.

When it comes to choosing the food that goes into your survival bag, make sure to choose those that are proven to have a long storage life. Take note that during disasters, there is a high chance that there would be no electricity. Therefore, you will not be able to use the refrigerator to keep the food fresh. At the same time, choose foods that can be eaten without little or no cooking at all. Most importantly, do not go for salty or spicy foods as they increase the necessity of drinking water.

Over all, the key to surviving a disaster is preparedness. You have to keep yourself ready as disaster comes when you least expect it. Being prepared all the time can save you from lots of trouble when the disaster is already in front of your eyes. Equip yourself with the right skills and knowledge to survive and stay alive in a disaster. Keep yourself updated with the latest news about the weather so that you will know if it’s time to get ready.

Common Errors That Can Happen with Your Camera System

Looking to protect and secure your home easily? In 2015, for instance, a property crime happened every 3.9 seconds in the U.S. In spite of this, only 17% of U.S households have a camera system installed.

The right camera system can help manage the threats of burglars and thieves.

Yet, with the many security cameras that can be found on the market today, it can be very overwhelming to choose one. As an intelligent buyer, make sure that the camera system is ideally suited for your unique needs - and you could do it easily by avoiding some common errors.

Camera system

Common Errors and How to Fix It

Below are some of the common errors and the best ways to fix them!

  • The Camera System is Not Used perfectly to Capture Images: Lots of users admit that they make poor choices. They do not spend their time entirely in doing their studies and research. All that they basically do is get a camera system for their businesses or homes without specifying the different cameras.

    In addition to that, they do not consider the camera system storage space. Once the DVR’s storage space is already full, it will then start to record things up. If you have not checked it consistently, you might potentially lose all those essential pictures.

    The usual error faced by users is that they locate the camera incorrectly. You need to fully remember that there are cameras that provide a wide-angle view and there are those that provide close-up detail. Thus, you need to keep in mind the usual error of locating the camera system at the wrong place.

  • Wrong Cables are Usually Used to Wire the Camera System: Almost all us would want to have a good camera system. You might even be willing to pay for the system. But, you usually forget to obtain high-quality cables so that you can wire the camera system. The thing is that poor quality and unstable cables can also bring a lot of issues like rolling lines, image interference and loss of images. This is also particularly true when you make use of an infrared camera.

    The common error is that you make use of the wrong cables. It just ends you up in getting poor and unclear images. That is why you need to utilize only quality cables for your camera system.

  •  DVR Not Having Enough Inputs: If the DVR of your camera system does not have enough inputs, it might bring issues when storing and capturing essential images. A correctly installed camera system must feature a DVR with all its inputs. This will cater to the number of cameras in your security system. It will help if you install a DVR and also its extra camera input. This will help you if you add up cameras should you decide to add cameras in the near future.

  • Use of the Wrong Camera Sets: You must always remember the fact that a camera system consists of various camera types. They all work uniquely for multiple applications. Indoor cameras and outdoor cameras are also very different from each other. They also need to be fully set up in various methods to get the best images. The cameras also feature night-view modes. This is why you must use the right camera to capture the right images. It will help if you also consider a varifocal camera if you alter the focal distance right after installation.

  •  Inadequate Storage Space on DVR: One of the common errors that you will notice with a camera system, it happens if there is not enough space when recording, expect that the DVR will overwrite the older data. You will lose important images and data.

    You need to have adequate space in the system. You must also set the recording and put it precisely in motion than just constant recording.

  • Inadequate Number of Cameras: While you may have all the quality cameras which work perfectly, if there are no cameras placed around, it wouldn't cover the entire area.

    Even if you have all the cameras but still have not pointed them out at the right angles, they will do you no good. They need to be located at the main exit or entry points of your business or home.

    If you have no cameras around, you will not capture the images needed.

    You will not be able to catch the thieves and burglars. Other than the exits and entries, you need to put your camera system in the driveway, the staircases, the garage and external surroundings.

The Top Tips When Using Camera Systems

Camera system

Since a camera system is an indispensable requirement in the present society, you need to understand how to use it perfectly.

There is a need to consider a few vital usage tips so that your system lasts for a lifetime.

Choose a Semi-Annual Inspection: Your outdoor and indoor security camera might potentially show signs of corrosion. Never allow these signals to go unnoticed. You need to scrutinize the camera system twice a year. You must replace the parts that do not function well.

Clean the Camera System: Cleanliness is key. This is why you need to keep it free from dregs and dust.

Always check the camera lenses: You must check the camera lenses for foreign particles, water, and dust. Always remember that the camera lenses are an essential part of the system.

The Cameras Need to be Safe: Never allow your cameras to be exposed to water or excessive dirt. You need to cover them up with an encasing or a small shed.


When you buy or make use of a camera system, you must always evaluate your needs. It will also be essential if you identify and analyze the present problems. You need to find ways to be able to resolve and fix these errors. It will also help if you take the initiative in learning more about the camera system. And more importantly, you should consider some specific tips on how to use a camera system for it to last for an extended period.  

All You Need to Know When Choosing the Best Safety Goggles

Several types of goggles will give protection in specific forms of work. Essential safety eye protection is usually a type of private defensive products which can be used for a personal vision for the security. Eye protection is typically primary safety spectacles in which suit actively for the eyes, on a regular basis together with suction, and so are attached using a link in which encircles the trunk with the brain. Eye protection could be applied to own vision in opposition to allergens, chemical compounds, water, glare and coming from items afflicting the particular eye-sight.

Why should you choose safety goggles?

Safety Goggles are imperative because of working environment wounds that happen are eye related. Most injuries are effectively avoidable by taking several preventive measures. The essential actuality is this is added to the human error and human carelessness. The bone structure of your face shields your eyes from damage because of effect from expansive items, and eyelashes help shield against damage from little protests. However, eyes are still exceptionally inclined to damage if legitimate safety measures are not taken to anticipate mischances. Eye wounds are a genuine issue. Can eye damage be severe, as well as if sufficiently severe could cause lost vision. Glass sections can be exceptionally harming to the eye, and glass is desperate to find and expel, particularly when in the vast workplace. Therefore, choose the best safety goggles to avoid unnecessary eye-related injury.

Safety goggles protect eyes from eye injuries

Types of safety goggles

Direct vented goggles permit the immediate stream of air into the glass. The unsecured vented segment of the goggles prohibits round articles that are 0.06 inches (1.5 millimeters) in the distance across or more prominent. In situations where the effect is the danger, and a sprinkle or vapor peril does not exist, a directly vented goggles can be utilized as a suitable level of assurance.

Indirect vented goggles give insurance from sprinkle passage by a hooded or secured vent. The vented segment of the spectacle is composed with the goal that no immediate straight-line entry of the glass exists. The motivation behind the Indirect venting is to restrain or keep the entry of fluid sprinkle into the spectacle. In situations where compound sprinkle is a danger, roundabout vented goggles ought to be chosen as proper insurance.

Non-vented goggles have no venting of any sort and offer insurance against the entry of tidy, fog, fluid and vapors. For applications where concoction vapor* is the risk, a non-vented goggle will be required protection.

How do safety goggles protect your eyes?

Goggles give assurance from effect, tidy and compound sprinkle. Like safety glasses, safety goggles are profoundly affected safe. Moreover, goggles provided a reliable shield around the whole eye and protection against risks originating from any bearing. Goggles can be worn over remedy glasses and contact focal points. Safety goggles can keep little particles subjugating inside your eyes. Safety glasses are warm safe and shield the eyes from flashes and blazes Safety glasses shield your eyes from compound sprinkles. If you’re working types of hardware that might be risky to your eye safety, remember your Safety Goggles. Sincerely, safety goggles will do the job of helping to protect your eyes.

How to choose best safety goggles?

While choosing the proper Goggles for your work environment, you should first play out a work environment peril appraisal. If eye and face work environment risks are available, you should decide when, where and various types of Lens, Frame, Purpose of use, Costs is appropriate.

Dark colored/bronze/coffee focal points are like dim focal points and can be utilized as a sunglass focal point where splendid light conditions or glare can cause eye weariness. Slight mirror coatings on clear focal points are proper for indoor/outdoor glare decrease and for laborers going from light to dim conditions. Focal point Tints/Color Options Polycarbonate focal points set the standard for the modern safety eyewear and are accessible in many hues and tints. Picking protective eyewear isn't as straightforward as merely choosing a couple of safety goggles that meet the American National Standards Institute/International. Huge highlights were accessible for eyewear that can help guarantee you have an ideal lens eyewear for the activity you do. Indoor/outside focal points are utilized for representatives who go from light to dim conditions or need to lessen glare in indoor conditions because of unforgiving lighting.

Some titanium frame outlines are produced using an amalgam that is a blend of titanium and different metals, for example, nickel or copper. Semi-valuable or valuable stones and precious stones are now and again utilized as accents in outlines, particularly in the sanctuaries. They are more straightforward to break than metal casings, they will consume (yet are not effortlessly touched off), and maturing and introduction to daylight diminish their quality somewhat. Mainstream decisions are onyx, turquoise and Swarovski precious stones; yet even jewels can be used for a lavish touch.

Safety glasses for the right purpose of use with side shield insurance, goggles with immediate or circuitous ventilation, confront shields worn over safety glasses or immediate or aberrant vented goggles for effect. Safety Goggles with quick or aberrant ventilation (eyecup or cover sort), full-facepiece respirators - tidy. Goggles with indirect or non-vented ventilation, confront shields have worn over circuitous vent or non-vented goggles, baggy respirators worn over Safety glasses or roundabout vent. Welding head protectors over Safety glasses or immediate or indirect vented goggles, confront shields over safety glasses or next or roundabout vented goggles, welding goggles, for Optical Radiation. Safety glasses with side shields assurance, goggles with immediate or indirect ventilation, for Heat. As much as we as a whole need to abstain from spending hard-earned cash indiscreetly, bargains that appear to be unrealistic when purchasing glasses are the same than bargains that sound pipe dream when buying whatever else — you may spare some money in advance, yet the item frequently doesn't satisfy your desires. Online retailers that offer shabby eyeglasses and shades regularly say they can provide low costs due to may have similar expenses related to a "block and-concrete" store, for example, the high lease paid in retail shopping zones.

Maintain safety goggles

Cleaning your Safety goggles after utilizing is a decent practice to prolong safety goggles. A few ways to wash glasses. Many goggles have different focal point coatings. If ever that you use a wipe to spotless or dry the focal point, you should be mindful so as not to scratch or harm the covering. On the off chance that a towelette is favored for cleaning, consider utilizing a dampened towelette to wipe the focal point delicately. You may likewise basically flush from the focal point with running water and enable the goggles to dry usually. Another choice would be an eyewear sterilizing bureau that works utilizing germicidal knobs. These cupboards have used either glasses or potentially Safety eyewear.

Maintain safety goggles


Therefore, goggles are the focal point to protect the eye against harmful things striking the eyes. In circumstances where compound sprinkle is a risk, circuitous vented goggles should be picked as proper protection. While choosing the right spectacle for your workplace, you should first play out a workplace risk evaluation. Moreover, consider Indoor/outside types of goggles due to the unique purpose of use. However, standard choices are onyx, turquoise and Swarovski precious stones; yet even gems can be utilized for a luxurious touch. Overall, we need to keep away from spending hard-earned money tactlessly and cleaning your Safety goggles after use is an excellent practice.

How to Survive and Be Safe in a Long-Time Flood?

Floods are a common and natural hazard. The safety tips will help you prepare before, during and after the flood and ensure that you suffer minimal damage.

What to Know about Flood?


A flood is a natural phenomenon caused by major storms resulting in rising waters levels in lakes, rivers, ponds and other waterways. When the water level raises, dried areas come under water.

A flood can last for many days. Water usually flows from higher to lower places quickly and this results in the higher areas getting dried quickly after the rain ebbs.


  • Too Much Rain – If there are incessant rains for many days, it can cause flooding in low altitude areas.
  • Flood Tides and Tsunamis – Tsunamis and flood tides can affect the coastline and causing flooding in nearby areas. The large waves that are triggered by tsunami can flood areas even when there is no rain.
  • Overload Water from River – Rains can lead to increase of water in rivers and the overload of water can cause floods.
  • Breaking Dam – If dams exceed their capacity to store water, they can get damaged to break and this can result in floods.
  • Melting Glaciers from Mountain Tops – Excessive snow melts from glaciers are known to cause flooding in towns near the mountains.
  • Weak Drainage Systems – A weak drainage system will not be able to clear water from rains in an effective manner and this can lead to flooding in the streets.
  • Types

  • Flash Floods – Flash floods are extremely dangerous and are usually caused by very heavy rains. They can occur anywhere and low altitude areas are considered most risky to this type of flooding. Heavy rains can cause flash floods within 5 – 6 hours. They can also be caused due to dam failure, snow melts and ice jams. If the water rises too quickly, you are at considerable risk. If a flash flood warning is issued in your area, it is best to head to higher ground.
  • Rapid-Onset Floods – The rapid onset floods last only for a short time. Even though they last only for a couple of days they can cause considerable damage to property if preventive measures are not taken.
  • Slow-Onset Floods – These types of floods usually last for a longer period. They usually last for one or more weeks and in some extreme cases can last for months. As they can last for a very long period, you need to take adequate steps to stay safe.
  • Effects

  • Effects on Human – The effect of floods on human can vary depending on the duration, location and speed of the flood. They can cause considerable damage to home and property. The structure of buildings can get damaged and this can be expensive to fix.
  • Effects on Animals – Floods can pose a threat to animals. Water can confine your pets to certain areas and they may find it difficult to escape. If the animals are not able to relocate they can be at risk of starvation and maybe even death.
  • Effects on Nature – The surging water of the floods can have a negative impact on the environment. Large scale flooding can distort the natural balance of the ecosystem and it can take many years to come back to normalcy.
  • Worst Floods in History

    The floods that have caused maximum damage to life and property include:

  • Yangtze River Flood (1935)
  • Banqiao Dam Failure (1975)
  • Huang He (Yellow) River Flood (1938)
  • Huang He (Yellow) River, China (1887)
  • China Flood (1931)
  • Surviving Guide for A Long-Time Flood

    Prepare for Flood

  • It is advisable to listen to the weather forecast so that you are aware of the category of storm that is most likely to hit your city. This can enable you to set up an evacuation plan. If possible move all expensive furniture and carpets to an upper floor.
  • Prepare a list of emergency supplies like medicines, canned food, first aid kit, water, flashlight, radio and clothing. You need to remember that flood waters take time to recede and you need to have adequate food and water to last for at least a week.
  • Reinforce your house so that water doesn’t enter and cause considerable damage. Fix your roof or the storm drain if it is broken. Secure all your valuables like important documents, jewelry, cash and credit cards.
  • During Flood

  • Turn off gas and heating supplies and electrical devices as surging waters can easily damage them and cause accidents. Disconnect all electrical appliances. This can help prevent fires and explosions.
  • If possible, it is best to avoid driving when flood occurs. If you do have to drive, you need to ensure that you avoid the flooded areas. If the water rises around your car when driving, you need to abandon it and move to higher ground.
  • If your house is located at a lower place, you need to get to the high points. Stay away from powerlines and other hazardous materials to prevent unnecessary accidents.
  • Avoid walking or swimming in the flood waters. The surging waters are usually too powerful even for an experienced swimmer and you could easily get swept away. If you are caught in a bad situation call emergency for help.
  • After Flood

  • After the flood waters have receded, you need to check for safety before you make the decision to move from your current place. If you had moved to a higher place, you need to return home only when the authorities declare that it is safe.
  • Listen to news and weather broadcast so that you are aware of situation. The news report will also enable you to know if the community water supply is safe to drink. You will become aware of areas where the roads are weakened and power lines are down.
  • Look for damage to your house and vehicle. If the flood waters had entered your home, you need to clean it in a thorough manner. The water that entered your home may contain sewage or other harmful chemicals. You need to clean and disinfect everything that got wet to ensure the health and safety of your family.
  • Floods are becoming a common occurrence and it is best to be prepared for this natural disaster. Even though you will not be able to avoid them completely, you will be able to safeguard your family and property if you take adequate measures before, during and after the flood. When you know how to handle a natural disaster, you will be able to recover as quickly as possible from any kind of damage.

    6 Ways to Be Safe When an Unexpected Landslide Occurs

    Landslides have been known to be major tragic incidents that can cause deaths. This article serves to provide some of the important facts and information about landslides.

    What is a landslide?

    A landslide occurs when rock, debris and other geological material flow down a hill slope in a dangerous manner. A landslide may occur in abruptly or it may occur gradually with warning signs. Sudden and rapid landslides are the most dangerous as people do not get sufficient time to take shelter or safety precautions. The landslides movements have been categorized into the following five categories:

    • Fall

    This movement ranges from rapid to extremely rapid landslide and the descent process ends with a rapid and catastrophic free fall. These falls are caused by natural phenomena like earthquakes.

    • Topple

    This type of landslide is caused by the fracture patterns in the rocks. The rock causing this type of landslide just tilts forward without collapsing. The topple landslide is also characterized by forwarding rotation of rocks around a pivot point.

    • Flow

    This landslide is the most dangerous because the flow becomes slurry due to the high-water content present in the slope material.

    • Slide

    The slide landslide is the most common cause of landslide and the material moves with a moderate rate in either rotational or a translational motion.

    • Spread

     This landslide is characterized by lateral spreading of the slope material over a flat terrain.

    Causes of landslide

    Landslides mainly occur along planes of weakness that are parallel to hill slope. A landslide can be caused by both, natural phenomena as well as human activities.

    Natural causes include:
  • Climate changes that affect the stability of the slopes
  • Earthquake vibrations
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • River erosion that causes the undercutting of hills and cliffs
  • Prolonged rainfall or seepage that elevates the pore water pressure in the slope material
  • Rapid melting of snow
  • Snow rapidly melts

    Human causes include:

  • Modification of natural drainage systems
  • Modification of natural terrains for construction of transportation systems
  • Mining activities
  • Vibrations caused due to blasting, explosion and traffic movements
  • Pipe leakages within the water supply system and sewer reticulation system
  • Displacement of rocks due to excavation
  • Clearing of forests or any other vegetation
  • A landslide can also be caused due to a combination of several of these factors. Some slopes are more prone to landslides whereas others are less susceptible. A number of factors trigger landslides but the catastrophe occurs mainly depends on the underlying bedrock and soil in addition to the geometric and the configuration of the slope.  Additionally, ground-water conditions also play a major role in causing landslides.

    Effects of landslide

    Landslides can be catastrophic because they cause irreparable damage to property along with human loss. Moreover, a landslide can impact the quality of life by destroying water supplies, sewage systems, transportation networks, railroads, forests, fisheries and various other natural resources. Landslides also affect economy negatively because a huge budget is required to repair the damages caused by landslides. Many people lose their livelihood when catastrophic landslides destroy forests and cause water pollution that kills fish stock.  Besides repair structures, victims as well the authorities have to incur medical costs. Considerable amount of money is spent in conducting geo-technical studies to assess and stabilize the afflicted areas.

    Landslide effects

    Some signs of incoming landslide

    It is always safe to pick up on any signs that are good indicators of an impending landslide. Following are some of the indicators that must be watched out for:

  • Water gaps in places that are not usually wet before. One can see seeps or saturated ground in these places
  • Presence of cracks in the roads, walls, footpaths and other concrete structures
  • Sudden alteration of water level in rivers or stream
  • Sudden decrease in a river’s water level during a rainfall
  • Strange sounds, such as: rock scrolling or trees cracking, are strong indicators of moving debris
  • Soil erodes away from foundations
  • Cracking and tilting of floors and platforms
  • A sudden increase in humidity may also be a sign of an incoming landslide. Newly installed windows and doors turn sticky due to a sharp rise in humidity 
  • Damaged water pipes or broken underground equipment and utilities
  • Tilting of house structures like patios and decks
  • Sunken roadbeds
  • Increased turbidity in water bodies
  • Leaning electric or telephone poles and offset fence lines
  • It is advised to signal a red alert when locals spot any of these signs in landslide-prone areas.

    6 ways to be safe in an unexpected landslide

    People need to follow the instructions listing below for staying safe and secure during an unexpected landslide:

  • Take shelter under a sturdy and large object if you are staying indoors. Alternatively, you can hide in a place that is strong enough to protect you from crumbling structures.  Do not come out until the landslide has decreased.
  • Stay awake and alert while taking shelter inside the house.  Listen to battery-operated radio or television to receive instructions and alerts from government authorities.
  • Evacuate your home if authorities inform that your safety is at stake. You may return if you are authorized to do so and it is advisable to return home only during broad daylight
  • Rapidly move away from the path that is bound to be affected by a landslide.  Avoid standing near trees, electrical lines, utility poles and river banks.
  • Tale extras precautions while driving in an area which is being affected by a landslide. A landslide may wash away bridges or overtop the culverts. Moreover, it will be dangerous to cross flooding streams. Roadside embankments are more susceptible to landslides. You must immediately turn around and drive away from the area after receiving a red alert.  Careful look out for collapsed pavement, fallen rocks and other debris that may cause accidents.
  • Contact emergency services if you need help. Make efforts to rescue trapped or wounded people if you are safe.
  • Conclusion

    Landslides can be devastating because they occur suddenly, move rapidly and travel over a long distance.  Even though they are difficult to predict, landslides are known to send out warnings even before they occur. It is wise to pick up these signals and follow safety protocols to minimize the negative effects of a landslide. Authorities always stipulate that people familiarize themselves with warning signs and follow an emergency plan in case of disaster. Housing communities residing in landslide-prone areas must ensure safety by meeting periodically and practicing safety protocols.  Ultimately, everyone must remember that chance favors only the prepared mind.  

    8 Essential Tips to Escape from a Huge Wildfire

    In simple terms, a wildfire can be understood as an uncontrollable fire that occurs in a massive area. Both natural and human factors contribute to the cause of widespread wildfires and it is always supported by the wind.

    The general maximum speed in which a wildfire can spread is 14 mph (21 km/h). It causes mass destruction to properties, habitats, and lands and causes deaths. We can categorize wildfires into 3 different types, namely, Ground fires, Brush fires and Crown fires. In the US alone, the total number of wildfires spreading each year is over 10,000. It has become a major concern all over the globe.

    Causes of Wildfire

    To have a better understanding of wildfires and how to mitigate them, let us have a look at what causes wildfires.

  • Wildfires caused by human: Reckless and inconsiderate behaviors of humans are responsible for the spread of many wildfires. It can spread if people are careless while burning debris, making campfires, and also due to equipment failure or engine burn. Small fire from lit cigarettes, fireworks, and arson if not properly managed can also grow a wildfire.
  • Wildfires caused by natural factors: There is nothing men can do to mitigate wildfires caused by natural factors. Wildfires caused by natural factors like lightening and volcano eruption are the two most common examples.
  • Volcano is one of the main causes of wildfire

    Effects of Wildfire

    Wildfires bring mass destruction to the land, environment, and human. Some of the major effects include:      

  • Loss of men, animals, trees, and habitat in large numbers.
  • Destruction of the soil which eventually leading to soil erosion. It also makes the land unsuitable for cultivation.
  • Creating toxic ash and smoke which pollute the environment thereby causing emergence of diseases.
  • Causing loss of water inside the wildfire area.
  • Damage to the economy including houses, roads, office buildings, and schools.
  • A Glimpse of Some of the Massive Wildfires

  • Siberian Taiga Fires in Russia (2003): According to sources, these massive wildfires are recorded to have burnt over 55 million acres of land and released a large amount of greenhouse gas.    
  • Black Friday Bushfire in Australia (1939): It is considered one of the worst bushfires in the world where 71 people lost their lives and almost 4,942,000 acres of land were burnt down.
  • Chinchaga fire in Canada (1950): Almost 4,200,000 acres of land were destroyed by this forest fire which is also referred to as the Wisp fire or the Chinchaga River fire. It produced large amounts of smoke leading to the 1950 Great Smoke Pall. 
  • Miramichi Fire in Canada (1825): This massive forest fire devastated communities and destroyed almost 16,000 km² of land which is about 1/5 of New Brunswick's forests.
  • Great Fire in U.S.A. (1910): Also known by different names like the Big Blowup and the Devil’s Broom fire, this wildfire burnt about 3 million acres of land and killed 87 people most of whom were firefighters.
  • 8 essential tips to escape from a huge wildfire 

    Here are 8 essential tips to escape from a huge wildfire:

    Run downhill when there is wildfire
  • Stay calm: Do not panic or else the situation will worsen. As far as possible, try to stay calm in order to find a way. If you become ruffled up, you will make a mess out of everything and it will be more difficult to take an intelligent decision or take measures to escape or mitigate the fire during the sudden emergency. You may even lose your life.
  • Cover your nose with wet cloth: Find some means to protect your respiratory system lest it gets choked and your die. You can use a wet cloth to cover your nose if it is available around the corner. Inhaling the toxic smoke created by the wildfire can also cause diseases like asthma and other respiratory diseases in the future.
  • Run downhill: Always run downhill to escape from the fire. Flames usually tend to go uphill when they ignite and you can also run faster to a safer place when you go downhill.
  • Choose less flammable materials: To maintain a safe working environment, choose the routines with less flammable materials. Avoid those materials which are highly inflammable especially if you are trying to mitigate the fire. Do not risk your life.
  • Wet your body with water: Find and splash water on your body to wet it if it is available nearby. This act will protect your body from getting burnt from the scorching heat. Also, your wet body is less likely to catch fire than if your body is dry. 
  • Take shelter underground: If escaping or running out of wildfire becomes impossible, find a place to take cover and hide until the fire is completely over. Taking shelter in places like caves, underground holes, and moats is safer than staying over ground. You can also dig a hole on the ground if you can’t find one. It will protect you from the roasting heat. And most probably the fire will graze over but won’t find its way into dug pits and hollows of the caves.
  • Move against the direction of wind: When the wildfire is over, check the direction of the wind carefully to ascertain in which direction the wind is blowing. At all times, you should move against the direction of the wind since there are chances of the wind igniting the fire again any time.
  • Seek emergency help: Find some emergency help around. Try to contact your local Red Cross, visit the nearest pharmacy in case of injuries, or ring up your area’s emergency help number. Also, try to listen to the latest local news in your radio or television that will keep you updated on the wildfire information and be ready to evacuate at a moment’s notice.
  • Conclusion

    Wildfires are highly destructive by nature. It causes great loss to the economy and environment and also takes away many lives. Always be careful even when you are dealing with a small fire because your negligence may lead to the cause of a widespread wildfire. Take care to fully snub out the lit cigarette before throwing it away and never leave the fire in a camping site unattended. In case of wildfire breakouts, try to stay as calm as possible to find measures to mitigate the fire and make an escape. And remember, you are not alone. Try to contact emergency numbers, locate your local Red Cross in case of injuries, and keep yourself updated by listening to the latest local news. Also, be ready to evacuate.

    5 Most Important Things You Must Know about Tornadoes

    Tornadoes are known to wreak havoc and cause mass destruction across multiple cities.  Extensive research is being carried out to fully understand this devastating natural phenomenon. Even though the knowledge about these storms has improved considerably, the truth remains that a lot more needs to be done to completely understand the causes of these devastating torrents. This article serves as a good primer that will have to get acquainted with tornadoes.

    What is a tornado?

    Tornadoes are dangerous storms and they appear as rotating funnels that travel violently with a speed of around 300 mph. The funnel of the tornado spans several miles wide and it touches both, the ground as well as the source cloud.  A tornado does not have a fixed path and the wind speed makes them act like a vortex that sucks up everything that comes in its way.  Hence, tornadoes are very difficult to study even for the purpose of classification.  Currently, the ‘Enhanced Fujita’ scale is used to classify tornadoes on the basis of the destruction that they create on the ground. The Enhanced Fujita scale classifies tornadoes in one of the following six categories:

    • Category EF1 (Moderate tornado): The name itself indicates that the tornado is capable of inflicting moderate damage.  The wind speed of the tornado ranges from 73-112 mph and it is devastating enough to damage surface roofs and damage the foundations of mobile homes. It can also overturn mobile homes and push autos off the road.
    • Category EF2 (Significant tornado):  Winds forming this tornado travel with speeds ranging from 113-157 mph and they cause considerable damage by uprooting large trees, demolishing mobile home and tearing off rooftops. Moreover, the uprooted objects tend to get hurled around like light-object missiles.
    • Category EF3 (Severe tornado): Severe damage is expected due to the EF3 category tornado. It had winds that can travel from 158-206 mph. This tornado can claim many lives because it has the potential to overturn trains, lift heavy cars and destroy the roofs along with walls.
    • Category EF4 (Devastating tornado): The EF4 tornado is devastating to both life and property as winds traveling in the speed range of 207-260 mph destroy even well-structured houses. 
    • Category EF5 (Incredible tornado) (261-318 mph): One can expect extreme damage by the storms associated with an EF5 tornado. This destructive tornado lifts off well-framed houses, heavy cars and other debris and flings them around like large missiles.

    Tornadoes can also be classified on the basis of their nature.  Following are the 7 main types of tornadoes:

    • Multiple Vortex Tornado: It has many whirling vortices inside the main vortex
    • Landspout Tornado: It is narrow rope-like funnel that appears while the thunderstorm is still forming.
    The Multiple Vortex Tornado
    • Waterspout Tornado: it appears as a straight column of rotating winds that touches a water body on one end and a cumulus cloud on the other.
    •  Dust-Devil Tornado: Dust devils do not touch a specific cloud and they go upwards in a swirling way only to fizzle out.
    • Gustnado Tornado: A gustanado is a weak tornado that are not connected to a cloud base and hence they cannot be termed as a tornado in a real sense.
    • Fire-Whirl Tornado: It starts with a whirl of fire smoke. This type of tornado is created when the intense head and turbulent combines to form whirling eddies of air.
    • Steam-Devil Tornado It is a weak tornado over water source that as formed by drawing in fog.

    What causes a tornado?

    A tornado is formed due to the collision of humid, warm air with dry, cold air. The collision takes place among thunderstorm clouds when warm and humid air rise very fast. A cumulus cloud is formed when the rising warm air condenses. The cloud keeps on getting larger and larger as the denser cold air is pushed below the warmer air. The rising of the warm air is called updraft and the sinking cool air is called downdraft. A tornado occurs when the winds begin to rotate due to the differences in speed and direction. The funnel cloud comes to the ground along with the cool air and an entire column of the tornado is formed with a ground base and with a cloud base.

    Worst tornadoes in history

    Even though they mainly occur in the USA, tornadoes have been known to cause mass devastation in other parts of the globe as well. Following are some of the most destructive tornadoes in history:

    • Daulatpur–Saturia tornado (1989): The Daulatpur–Saturia tornado occurred in the Manikganj District of Bangladesh. The tornado occurred on April 26, 1989 and it claimed around 1,300 lives. It was the tornado with the highest amount of money in Bangladesh and the deadliest one in the world history.
    • East Pakistan Tornado (1969): The second deadliest tornado also occurred in Bangladesh in 1969 when it was still a part of Pakistan. The tornado struck on April 14, 199 and it killed around 660 people in Dhaka.
    • Tri-State Tornado (1925): This tornado occurred on March 18, 1925 and it killed 95 people when it traveled through Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. The tornado devastated an area of more than 300 miles and it injured 2,027 people.
    • Sicily Tornado (1851): About 500 people were killed when 2 tornadoes swept across the Marsala countryside in Sicily. The disaster took place in 1851.
    • Valletta Tornado (1951/1956): At least 600 people were killed when a tornado hit the Grand Harbor of Malta.  The exact year of its occurrence remains debatable.

    Some safety tips for you 

    Due to the unpredictable nature of tornadoes, it is advisable to be well-prepared before a tornado occurs. Following are the top 6 tips for increase our level of preparedness before, during and also after tornado occurs:

    • Prepare an action plan:  Chalking put a contingency plan is essential in a scenario when an emergency signal is issued. All family members must be made aware of the action plan and a safety kit must be packed for sustenance. A proper shelter place must be decided that will protect the entire family from the tornado. The structure offering shelter must be checked thoroughly and any flaws must be repaired.
    • Practice the action plan delicately:  Action drills must be planned throughout the year and every family member must practice repeatedly to improve the survival skills.  The drill must also focus on surviving life-threatening events like fires, severe weathers and some of the devastating features of a tornado. The drill must educate the audience about signs of a tornado. Green clouds, hail and flying debris and the signs of a tornado.
    • Protect your important documents:  Tornado will take you by surprise and there will not be plenty of time for securing your important documents like bank accounts and insurance papers. It is advised to copy your documents and store them in a more secure place that will not be affected by a tornado.
    • Safety measures during the tornado: It is advisable to protect yourself in a basement while taking shelter from a tornado.  Take cover under a bench or a sturdy wooden furniture that is located away from the windows. Alternatively, you can take shelter in a bathroom or a closet that is kept away from the windows.  If you are outdoors then you must take shelter in a designated shelter area.
    • Safety precautions while driving: If you happen to encounter a tornado while driving then you must drive in a direction that is 90 degrees to the path of the tornado. This is because tornadoes travel from west to east and taking the perpendicular route keeps you away from the tornado’s path.
    • Safety measures after the tornado: Turn off the power supply, water mains and gas supply if your house is damaged. Watch out for fallen debris and loose power lines. Use bleach, rubber gloves and rubber shoes to clean any mess caused by damaged drainage systems. Use generators and other fuel-burning sources of energy and protect yourself from any carbon monoxide in the environment.
    Drive carefully in tornado

    The differences between a tornado and a hurricane

    The most important difference between a tornado and a hurricane is that they occur on altogether different sales. Tornadoes are small-scale circulations and the larger tornadoes tend to impact about 1 to 1.5 miles at any given time. Tornadoes arise in different circumstances and in different places around the globe.  As compared to hurricanes, tornadoes cause less destruction and they have very short lifespans.  The winds associated with tornadoes can reach up to a maximum speed of 3000 mph.

    Hurricanes are larger than tornadoes can their diameter can affect areas whose diameters range from 60-100 miles. Generally, hurricanes form between 5 degrees to 20 degrees latitude.  They always form over warm water and mostly emerge on the ocean surface. They travel thousands of miles and continue to exist for a number of days.

    Research on tornadoes is quite new and meteorologists are trying to demystify various aspects of the tornado that continue to puzzle scientists.  Even though scientists have a good understanding of thunderstorms, they are still unable to explain the evolution of tornadoes from thunderstorms. As long as it is difficult to predict a tornado, it will always be a good idea to brace ourselves in advance.

    How can We Avoid Most Damage from Earthquake?

    Thousands and even millions of people have been lost in property damages and livelihood, buildings and houses have been abandoned; also, a great number of residents have been left without a roof due to earthquakes anywhere in the world. Devastation is really substantial when earthquakes happen although they are one of the least predictable natural hazards. But these losses and devastation can be prevented only if proper preparation has been set.

    Some facts about earthquake

    What is an earthquake?

    An earthquake is a phenomenon characterized by sudden and rapid shaking or vibration of the earth's surface. It creates three types of seismic waves: the primary, secondary, and the surfaces waves. It is measured by Richter magnitude scale which is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of seismograph-recorded waves.

    What cause earthquakes?

    Earthquakes occur when the tectonic plates of the earth break and move. When rocks underground suddenly break along a fault, energy is suddenly released causing the seismic waves to make the ground shake. Sometimes earthquakes are caused by human activities that alter the strains and stresses on the Earth's crust such as weapon testing.

    Types of earthquakes

    There are four types of earthquakes that occur depending on the plate movements beneath the surface of the earth. Among them are tectonic, volcanic, explosion and collapse earthquake. A tectonic earthquake happens when the crust of the Earth breaks because of the geological forces on the rocks and the adjoining plates causing chemical and physical changes. Volcanic earthquake is caused by the tectonic forces that occur in conjunction with the volcanic activity. Explosion earthquake occurs from the detonation of a chemical and/or nuclear device. Collapse earthquake comprises small earthquakes in mines and underground caverns as a result of seismic waves due to rock explosion on the surface.

    Effects of earthquakes

    Though direct shaking of the ground effects is most probably the immediate results of earthquakes, they also result in disasters like tsunami, flood, landslide, fire, etc. They can cause damages to buildings and infrastructures. Soil liquefaction is another effect of the earthquake is soil liquefaction wherein a saturated and partially saturated soil loses stiffness and strength in response to applied stress.

    Earthquake causes tsunami

    Where does earthquake usually occur?

    In most cases, earthquakes occur along the plate edges, along fault lines, Alpide Belt, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and at The Circum-Pacific Seismic Belt or the Ring of Fire.

    Some worst earthquakes in history

    History records the worst earthquakes of time including those in Nepal in 2015, Nankaido, Japan in 1498, Izmit, Turkey in 1990, Rudbar, Iran in 1990, and Sicily, Italy in 1693. All these have cost a number of human lives, millions of dollars, and great devastation among the afflicted. They are regarded as the strongest and the deadliest of all the earthquakes in history.

    How to avoid most of the damage from earthquakes?

    Earthquakes can strike anytime and out of nowhere and can cause major damage. They do not occur often, but when they do, the magnitude of their damage can be insurmountable. However, these can be prevented by thinking ahead and determining the problem areas. It is best to be better prepared and well-informed to minimize loss and damages. Below are some of the preventive or proactive tips to take to avoid most earthquake damages.

    Before earthquakes

    You need to have knowledge about earthquakes, even just for the basics. Learn some techniques on how to survive when there’s an earthquake then share them with everyone. Ask anyone knowledgeable about earthquake preparation and avoidance.

    Always have an emergency kit or supplies ready anytime they are needed. Keep a supply of updated first aid kit, dust mask and goggles, flashlights, enough water, and canned food.

    You may consult any professional on how to make your home sturdier like installing strong cupboard latches and bolting bookcases to wall studs. Make an arrangement of all your furniture inside the house in a way that they are earthquake resistant.

    Have an evacuation plan in case your area will be hit by an earthquake. Locate the certain place in your house where you can go when it happens. This spot should be free from anything that likely to fall on you.

    During earthquakes

    The rule of thumb here is to “drop, cover, and hold.” You need to drop down where you are during the earthquake, take cover under a table or desk, and then hold on or hold your head using your hands. It’s best to stay indoors until its shaking slows down or in full stop and when you are sure that exiting is already safe. As much as possible, you need to stay away from any furniture or bookcases that can fall on you.

    You need to stay away from the window especially when you’re inside a building. It can shatter that may injure you. Expect the fire sprinklers and fire alarms to go off if you’re in a high-rise building. Check for and extinguish any fire and use the stairs when you exit.

    When in a high-rise building

    Tsunamis are frequently created by earthquakes so move to the higher ground when you’re in a coastal area. Meanwhile, be alert for falling debris that may be loosened by the quake when you’re in a mountainous area or unstable cliffs or cliffs. Also, be warned for landslides often happen following earthquakes. 

     If you’re anywhere outside in an open space, keep away from the bridge, trees, power line, buildings, etc. All these things can collapse when there’s a quake.

    After earthquakes

    Try to check yourself if you incurred any injury after an earthquake then tends to others well-being. Have protection from further danger by wearing a long-sleeved shirt, work gloves, sturdy shoes, and long pants. Help trapped or injured persons once you have taken care of your own self. Give first aid whenever it’s appropriate when you’re in a base emergency.

    Search for and then extinguish fires. Get rid of any possible fire hazards. Put out small fires immediately with any available resources to prevent spread out. Take note that fire often comes after a quake. Make sure to leave the gas on its main valve unless you think the gas leaks or when you smell it. This is to prevent explosions that may result in death and injury.

    Cautiously open cabinet doors and closet as their contents may have shifted during the quake’s shaking and could fall and create further injury or damage. Inspect the entire house for possible damage then get everyone out when you found out that your home is not that safe. As expected, aftershocks follow after the quake, which may further damage unstable buildings.

    Watch out for the fallen power lines. Never try to switch on electric power to prevent electrocution. It’s always better to be safe than never. Only use the telephone lines when necessary like emergency calls and report of life-threatening emergencies.

    How can we predict earthquakes?

    As of this writing, scientists have not been able to predict earthquakes. They have conducted many earthquake trials already but they were left disappointed. It was found out that most of the models and methods go beyond the scope of the recent work.

    Nonetheless, humans try to predict earthquakes through unusual animal behavior, temperature change, foreshocks, and the Theory of Seismic Gap. Hydrochemical precursors, seismic wave velocity changes, gas emissions, oil wells, ambient noise, and temperature change are also used by some.

    There’s a possibility to monitor the movements of the breaks or active faults in the earth’s crust when the GPS systems found along the identified active faults. Minor movements of the earth’s surface indicate an impending earthquake although no precise prediction can be made on its magnitude and location. This serves as a reflection of the force that comes from below the crust.

    Laser beam can be used in detecting the movements of the plate, while a seismometer is being used in picking up the vibrations coming from the crust of the Earth. 

    Technological advances enable scientist of today to use satellite and laser systems to predict fault movements. The data the gathered gives them better ideas where the quakes are heading to for future occurrence and may help people prepare for the many other earthquakes to possibly come. Hoping for a technology for earthquake prediction, scientists are still bold in confirming the absence of a prediction device. What seismologists do now is to have a keen look on selected places where gigantic earthquakes are projected to strike.

    People say sorry to those who are in the midst of earthquake’s devastation. The relevance of being prepared is often underestimated as people tend to forget that disaster strikes when it is less expected. This then leaves the world in topsy-turvy. Of course, it is everybody’s hope to stay proactive to prevent a great hazard that can be caused by earthquakes. No ones to get caught in the middle of this situation. It has been of high hope for the pointers provided above will help you save many lives during the actual earthquake that may give you a lifetime memory of mishap.

    What should we prepare for an upcoming hurricane?

    Hurricanes have always been a part of global news because of the devastation they cause. Global audiences are usually exposed to the catastrophic phenomenon due to the highly graphic images that depict the loss of human life and property.  This article serves to throw more light on this destructive side of nature that can be best termed as a nightmare for many.

    What is a hurricane?

    Air moves from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. Usually, the air moves in a straight direction.  However, there are times when the strong winds spiral towards the low-pressure zone due to the earth’s curved shape and rotational movement.  This low-pressure weather system accompanied by thunderstorms is called tropical cyclone.  Tropical cyclones with sustained winds traveling at a speed more than 74 mph are called hurricanes. Most of the hurricanes originate in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Hurricanes also form in the Indian Ocean and central North Pacific Ocean. Hurricanes are devastating and the Saffir-Simpson rating scale classifies hurricanes based on the wind speeds. There are the five major categories of hurricanes as following:

    Level of the hurricane
    • Category 1: Hurricanes in this category consists of winds that travel with a speed of 74-95 mph and they are less damaging
    • Category 2:  Winds in the Category 2 hurricane flow with speeds ranging between 96-110 mph thereby causing extensive damage to property.
    • Category 3: Winds associated with Category 3 hurricanes have speeds from 111 to 130 mph and they cause significant damage to property and living things.  These hurricanes also cause damage to major infrastructure services like electricity supply.
    • Category 4:  Category 4 hurricanes have winds that have speeds ranging from 131-155 mph and it takes several months to recover from the damage caused by the strong winds. 
    • Category 5: Category 5 hurricanes are catastrophic as they have winds that travel greater than 155 mph.

    Parts of a Hurricane

    A hurricane consists three main parts:

    • Eye – This is the central part of the tropical storm that is calm
    • Eye Wall – This is the devastating part of the hurricane that is made up of strong winds and rain. The eye wall is the part around the eye
    • Rain Bands – These are the clouds that make the hurricane bigger by spinning out

    Names of hurricanes

    Since 1953, weather forecasters have been naming hurricanes based on a list prepared by the National Hurricane Center. Hurricanes were usually named after females until 1979 when authorities started giving men’s names to hurricanes. Today, the names are determined by the World Meteorological Organization and it is released once after every six years.  Moreover, a hurricane name is selected as a male or female name on an alternate basis.

    Difference between a hurricane and a typhoon

    The terms ‘Hurricanes’ and ‘Typhoons’ refer to the same natural phenomena and these are used interchangeably depending on the location where they occur. The term ‘hurricane’ is used if the weather disturbance occurs in the Atlantic and the Northeast Pacific Ocean basins. The same disturbances in Northwest Pacific are termed as ‘typhoon’ and the disturbances in the Indian Ocean are termed as ‘cyclones’.

    Some huge hurricanes in history

    These are some of the most deadly and costliest hurricanes that have been recorded in human history:

    • Great Hurricane of 1780 was the deadliest hurricane and it caused a loss of 24,000 lives
    • Great Galveston hurricane of 1900 was the second deadliest hurricane that caused around 12000 deaths.
    • The Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 had a death toll between 2500-3000
    • Hurricane Katrina was the third deadliest hurricane and it claimed more than 1500 lives.  This hurricane emerged in 2005
    • Hurricane Andrew, Hurricane Ike and Hurricane Sandy were other devastating hurricanes that caused property damage worth $25 billion, ‎$37.6 billion and ‎$75 billion respectively.

    How is a hurricane formed?

    Hurricanes start its form in the warm water of the Pacific as well as the Atlantic Ocean. They arise as tropical storms when the evaporated ocean water rises high enough to become hot and moist air that twists. Warm water having temperatures more than 79 F make the hurricane grow in size. Hurricanes arising in the Atlantic Ocean originate near Africa and they rapidly move to the west under the influence of the Trade Winds. Similarly, hurricanes impacting the eastern Pacific region arise in the warm water of the Central American coasts. Hurricanes lose their power once they cross land or cooler water.

    What to prepare for an upcoming hurricane?

    The worst thing that anyone living along the coastlines can do is not to prepare for the devastation brought by a hurricane.  The National Hurricane Center has explicitly appealed to citizens for not only preparing for the risks but also swing into action when a ‘red alert’ is sounded by the authorities. The center has outlined the following emergency steps that must be followed by people residing in areas impacted by hurricanes:

    Evacuation Planning

    Planning for a safe evacuation gains highest-priority in an emergency action plan because the hurricanes cause the water level to abnormally rise above the predicted astronomical tide. This ‘storm surge’ damages homes as it sweeps through coastal towns. Hence, people must pay serious attention to the evacuation details and plans that are released by the authorities in public interest.  The evacuation routes need to be tested in advance even before the advent of a hurricane.  A thoroughly tested evacuation plan instills the necessary level of confidence amongst the affected people who can find their way to safety even in an anxious state of mind.  Pet owners must follow appropriate evacuation procedures for their pets. People staying close to the affected areas must also take safety precautions.  Mobile home owners in these localities will have to evacuate as per the instructions.

    Buy Supplies

    Prepare for hurricane

    Apart from preparing for evacuation, people must buy supplies for sustaining themselves while facing the calamity post-evacuation. People falling short of supplies will then be required to face an arduous task of standing in long queues.  They might not find enough supplies in times of emergency.  Those residing in evacuation areas must bring a ‘hurricane kit’ to an evacuation shelter. An evacuation shelter might not provide all the bare essentials and hence a personal evaluation kit must have food, water, blanket and clothing. Additionally, the evacuation suitcase must also include first-aid box, a battery-operated radio, local maps, important documents, flashlight, batteries and a whistle to signal help.

    Check insurance coverage

    Homeowners must buy flood insurance even before they get any signal about an impending hurricane. Car owners need to buy car insurance and they must avoid parking their car out in the open during the hurricane.

    Make copies of important documents

    People must make copies of the important documents pertaining to government id proofs, home ownership, car ownership, education, bank accounts, and investment details. The documents and their copies must be a part of the evacuation kit as they will need to be produced for reclaiming your property and also during relocation.

    Protect your home

    The resident of hurricane-prone areas should examine and detect any weaknesses in their housing structures. Buildings in residential complexes need to be carefully examined and their strengths for withstanding the hurricane must be accurately measured.  Damaged roofs must be promptly repairs and loose shingles must be refitted. Faulty roof structures tend to be an open vent for gusty winds.  Any other structures that are installed on the grounds must be evaluated and fixed. This will prevent any unwanted debris to be flying around during the hurricane.  While repairing their houses, residents must make sure that they buy plywood to cover their windows and to prevent their doors from blowing away.  Architects and engineers must plan to build hurricane-proof homes in upcoming residential projects.  An appropriate safety place must be identified in the house where residents can take shelter. More importantly, it is so serious to turn off all energy sources while taking shelter inside the house.  Residents must be mentally prepared to remain in the shelter for a long and uncomfortable period of time.

    Back up critical electronic data

    Hurricanes disrupt power infrastructure and it is always safe to keep additional batteries and extra chargers during power outages. All information stored in digital format must be backed up. This is especially critical for companies who can lose business-critical data if it is not backed up in an offsite location. The offsite location must be far away from the hurricane-prone areas. Appropriate security measures need to be followed while backing up critical data.


    Maintaining a high level of emergency preparedness is the key to surviving the catastrophe brought about by a hurricane.  A good emergency plan can only be chalked out if the all the risks and challenges associated with a hurricane are understood. It is also necessary to avoid overestimating the risks as there are many unforeseeable events that are beyond the human control. However, an effective action plan ensures that the damage to human lives and property is damaged to the greatest extent. Besides helping people to stay strong, an effective disaster recovery plan helps to restore life back to normal after the nightmare is over.